Best Futures Brokers

Richard Montana | August 1, 2022

Futures trading is a contract between a buyer looking to invest and a seller and where the contract is made for the future and has an expiration date. There are primarily two participants, hedgers and speculators. Hedgers look to try and protect their assets from risks whilst speculators are usually floor traders.

Futures trading is a popular choice for active investors who would like to trade long and short with leveraged positions on a variety of different asset classes. The wide range of futures contracts means that there is ample opportunity to look for trades. The types of futures available to trade include a wide range of financial and commodity-based contracts, from indexes, currencies, and debt to energies and metals, to agriculture products.

Individual investors and traders most commonly use futures as a way to speculate on the future price movement of the underlying asset. They seek to profit by expressing their opinion about where the market may be headed for a certain commodity, index, or other financial product. Future contracts, because of the way they are structured and traded, have many inherent advantages over trading stocks.

In order to trade futures, you will need an account with a future broker and access to a trading platform. There are quite a few options when it comes to choosing a broker, so it can be quite hard to decide on which is the right one for you. We have put together this futures trading guide to help you understand more about the options available to you and discover some of the best futures brokers out there today.

Top 10 Futures Brokers

Here you will find our best future brokers, based on thousands of hours of extensive research, testing and analysis across hundreds of brokers. Upon conclusion of each of our broker reviews, we have assigned each broker with a rating.

Some of the most important factors that contribute towards a good broker for trading futures online have been considered including things such as the available futures, other financial instruments, platforms, apps, tools, spreads, execution, liquidity, fees, education, funding options, regulation, customer service and more.

Each of our best brokers for futures trading have undergone and passed our stringent broker reviews with flying colours, based on what we consider to be amongst the most important considerations when choosing a future broker. These brokers are well-established within the online trading industry, providing top future trading conditions to traders and investors of all experience levels.

Having the best futures brokers according to our findings listed in one place, can help you save time when looking for the best future broker for your own individual needs.

Min. Deposit
Max. Leverage


Min $250 Deposit



Between 74-89% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.


Min $1 Deposit



Between 74-89% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.


Min $0 Deposit



All investments involve risk, including loss of principal. Past performance does not guarantee future results.


Min $0 Deposit



All investments involve risk, including loss of principal. Past performance does not guarantee future results.


Min $200 Deposit



Between 74-89% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.


Min €10,000 Deposit



Between 74-89% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.


Min $100 Deposit



Between 74-89% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.


Min $100 Deposit



Between 74-89% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with this provider.


Min $250 Deposit



Futures and options trading involves substantial risk of loss and is not suitable for all investors.


Min $100 Deposit



Trading futures and options involves substantial risk of loss and is not suitable for all investors. Past performance is not necessarily indicative of future results.


IG are one of the most well established and regulated brokers you will find. You can trade futures and speculate on exclusive 24/7 indices, popular global commodities and selection of bonds. When trading futures with IG, you will be speculating on the underlying market price, without entering the futures contract yourself. They have a great selection of futures to choose from with over 80 indices and a huge range of commodity and bond futures.

  • Deal from web-based, mobile app and third-party platforms
  • Trade more 24/7 markets with IG than many other providers
  • Access index, commodity and bond futures from one centralised account
  • Speculate on rising and falling prices with the option of leverage
  • Get better execution with deep internal liquidity
  • Get your full size with advanced dealing options
  • Welcome traders in the USA
  • Free demo trading accounts
  • Could offer some more deposit and withdrawal methods
  • Minimum deposit of $250 is not the lowest
  • Limited instruments on MetaTrader 4
  • No MetaTrader 5 platforms
  • Inactivity fee after 2 years

Interactive Brokers

Interactive Brokers are one of the best futures brokers as they have an excellent range of futures, commodities and future options available to trade on over 35 market centers worldwide. You can get professional access to agriculture, currency, energy, equity index, fixed income, metals, and volatility futures from a single powerful platform. The broker provides you with a great choice of advanced tools free of charge to help you trade the futures market effectively.

  • Trade a great selection of futures and future options in combination with stocks, ETFs, and options worldwide from a single screen
  • Gain insights into the markets with daily futures arbitrage and interest rates tables
  • Visit the traders’ university to listen to one of their futures product webinars
  • The trading application offers specialized futures trading tools and a us futures market scanner
  • Low cost pricing plans for us futures and futures options
  • Welcome traders in the USA
  • Free demo trading accounts
  • Limited deposit and withdrawal options
  • Customer support response time
  • Prolonged account opening process
  • Could be quite overwhelming for beginners
  • Complex pricing schedule
  • Inactivity fees apply

TD Ameritrade

TD Ameritrade offers a broad array of futures trading tools and resources.  You can learn all about futures and prep yourself for trading with a fantastic collection of in-depth videos, articles, and quick info guides. Commodities, index, treasury – you can trade all that and more.

With a TD Ameritrade account, you’ll have access to thinkorswim, a powerful trading platform for futures trading, as well as other investments. This feature-packed trading platform lets you monitor the futures markets, plan your strategy, and implement it in one convenient, easy-to-use, and integrated place.

Designed especially for futures traders, the Active Trader tab on thinkorswim features an easy-to-use bid/ask price ladder, one-click order entry, fully customizable charting, and advanced order types. Identify trends, pinpoint exit and entry points, and get access to more than 400 technical studies and custom charts, all in one place.

With thinkorswim Mobile, you can place trades, access technical studies and drawings on charts, explore education, and contact support, all from the palm of your hand. Plus, monitor and manage positions and risk, at any time, from anywhere.

  • Impressive choice of more than 70 futures products available to trade
  • Free access to powerful integrated trading platforms for all of your devices
  • Excellent range of premium trading tools for complex market analysis
  • Get help and guidance from professional traders
  • There are no hidden fees or complicated pricing structures with futures trading
  • There are no clearing fees, no routing or platform fees, and no daily carrying fees for positions held overnight
  • Welcome traders in the USA
  • Limited countries accepted
  • No contract for differences (CFDs)
  • Limited account funding options
  • Account currency limited to USD
  • Slightly prolonged account opening process


TradeStation offers over 350 futures and futures options products to trade, which means expanded trading opportunities in a wide range of markets, including indexes, commodities, metals, and more. They have all of the trading tools and data you need to trade futures effectively, including an advanced trading platform, dedicated futures specialists, educational resources, and commission-free pricing plans.

TradeStation’s feature-rich trading platform lets traders monitor the markets, plan strategies, and implement them in one easy-to-use and convenient place. You have everything you need to stay up to date on the latest financial news with Market Insights. Get daily briefings on market activities, trading opportunities, and education, including earnings recaps and insights from industry veterans.

TradeStation FuturesPlus powered by Trading Technologies is a feature-rich platform for futures options traders. TradeStation customers can trade the leading international exchanges and liquidity platforms, including CME and ICE, on the web or a mobile device.

Overall, TradeStation can be a great futures trading broker for investors and traders who want to get started in futures trading, with low minimums and one of the most impressive selections of futures to choose from. They have everything you need from a futures broker and more.

  • Superb futures trading platforms with an abundance of tools and educational resources
  • Access a wide array of diversified investments including indices, treasuries, metals, energies, currencies, and more
  • Increased leverage allows futures traders to control a large amount of notional value with a relatively small amount of capital
  • Virtually 24-hour around the clock access to major futures exchanges across the U.S. and Europe
  • No pattern day trading rules with no minimum account value to trade multiple times per day
  • Easy to short with no short sale restrictions or hard-to-borrow availability concerns
  • Welcome traders in the USA
  • Minimum $2,000 required for free trading on the desktop platform
  • Limited choice of deposit and withdrawal options
  • Slightly confusing pricing structure
  • No forex trading available

IC Markets

IC Markets offer a decent range of futures from around the world, including ICE Dollar Index and CBOE VIX Index. I have included them as they also have a great selection of other financial instruments including CFDs on stocks, forex, commodities and cryptocurrency. Online futures based CFDs are offered exclusively on IC Markets’ MetaTrader 4 Platform. Futures CFD are priced directly from the underlying futures markets, with commissions, financing charges and dividend adjustments all built into the spread itself. IC Markets offers competitive spreads across all of their future CFDs. They have excellent trading conditions including fast execution speeds via powerful trading platforms that are loaded with powerful tools for comprehensive market analysis. This is backed up by excellent 24/7 multilingual customer support.

  • 4 Global Futures available to trade
  • No commissions and tight spreads
  • Possibility to trade futures with leverage
  • Deep liquidity for good execution speeds
  • User-friendly MetaTrader 4 and 5 platforms
  • Trade futures 24/5 from web, desktop and mobile
  • Free demo trading accounts
  • Excellent 24/7 customer support
  • Do not have a proprietary trading platform
  • Available trading products can vary depending on your location
  • Minimum $200 deposit is not the lowest
  • Cannot accept traders in the USA


EXANTE is a multi-asset brokerage firm for professionals that offers direct access to trade 400,000+ financial instruments over 50 financial markets through one account via sophisticated trading platforms.

  • Professional trading platforms
  • Intuitive mobile trading app
  • Access over 400,000 instruments
  • Various asset classes to trade and invest in
  • Low fees and reliable execution speeds
  • Transparent pricing for everyone
  • Market insights and analysis
  • Educational resources for beginners
  • Free demo accounts
  • Excellent 24-hour support
  • Dedicated account manager
  • Minimum deposit of €10,000
  • Bank wire deposit/withdrawals only
  • Inactivity fees may apply
  • No Islamic accounts


Tickmill is a multi-regulated online broker offering retail and institutional clients across the globe a decent choice of financial instruments. Spreads and commissions are competitive with flexible accounts. Platforms and tools are sufficient but educational material is lacking and they could offer more trading products.

  • User-friendly trading platforms for multiple devices
  • Range of trading instruments to choose from
  • Low spreads and quick execution speeds
  • Various accounts types and funding methods
  • Autochartist for efficient market analysis
  • Free VPS for eligible clients
  • FIX API trading solutions
  • Commission free accounts
  • Great client support
  • No deposit or withdrawal fees
  • No inactivity fees
  • Free demo accounts
  • Islamic swap-free accounts
  • Lack of educational resources
  • Limited non-FX instruments
  • No cryptocurrencies
  • Minimum $100 deposit
  • Cannot accept traders in the USA


FXGiants is a multi-regulated online broker offering clients a good range of financial instruments to trade on powerful trading platforms with very flexible account types, trading tools for market analysis and vast range of educational materials for beginners.

  • Hundreds of financial instruments to trade
  • Easy to use MT4 platform for web, desktop and mobile
  • Commission free trading
  • Tight spreads from 0.0 pips
  • Fixed spread accounts
  • Free VPS option for eligible clients
  • Myfxbook AutoTrade implemented for copy trading
  • Managed accounts for investors and money managers
  • Islamic account for Muslim traders
  • Demo accounts to practice trading
  • 1-minute registration (approx.)
  • 24/5 customer support via multiple channels
  • Limited account funding options
  • Minimum $100 deposit is not the lowest
  • No MetaTrader 5 (MT5) platform
  • Cannot accept traders in the USA


Tradovate is a great broker for trading futures and options with competitive fees on excellent platforms for web, desktop and mobile. You get access to a great range of powerful tools to improve your trading strategies and can integrate with third-party solutions.

  • Trade futures, options on futures, as-well-as get stock data from leading exchanges
  • Trade anywhere and from any device with the cloud-trading platform
  • 40+ advanced trading tools to enhance your market analysis
  • Expand your trading possibilities with 3rd party integration tools
  • Create your own indicators and import tools from a large community of traders
  • Build custom trading solutions with powerful API tools
  • Transparent pricing with no hidden fees
  • Good choice of membership plans to choose from
  • Simulated trading accounts to trial the platform
  • Education to help you every step of the way
  • No forex or crypto trading
  • Minimum $250 deposit
  • Limited account funding options
  • Limited accepted countries
  • May be too complex for some users

Optimus Futures

Optimus Futures is a leading online futures broker that caters to traders seeking low latency execution and stable data feeds combined with aggressive margins and deep discount commissions.

  • Fantastic choice of robust trading platforms
  • Free professional grade trading tools
  • Deep discount trading commissions
  • Low day trading margins
  • Vast selection of educational resources
  • Access to extensive research and quotes
  • Access to real time updated account information
  • Automated trading systems
  • Low latency trading infrastructure that delivers fast execution
  • Excellent personalised customer support
  • 24/7 telephone dealing while you’re away
  • Minimum $100 deposit not the lowest
  • Limited financial instruments compared to some brokers
  • Do not support many account funding methods
  • Perhaps slightly overwhelming for beginners
  • Cannot accept clients from some countries due to regulators

Futures Trading Guide

What is Futures Trading?

Futures are financial contracts that typically trade on an exchange in which two parties – one buyer and one seller – agree to exchange an underlying market for a fixed price at a future date (expiration date). One party agrees to buy a given quantity of securities or a commodity, and take delivery on a certain date.

The buyer in the futures contract is known as to hold a long position or simply long. The seller in the futures contracts is said to be having short position or simply short. The exchange acts as mediator and facilitator between the parties. In the beginning both the parties are required by the exchange to put beforehand a nominal account as part of contract known as the margin.

Many different commodities, currencies, and indexes are traded in futures, offering traders a wide array of products. Since futures contracts can be bought and re-sold any time the market is open up until the fulfilment date, they are a popular product among day traders. Futures can be used to hedge against risk or speculate the prices.

As an example, the futures contract size for gold is 100 ounces. Thus, if you are buying two gold future contracts, you are in control of 200 ounces of gold. If the price of gold increased by $1 an ounce, your position will change by $200 ($1 x 200 ounces). Each futures contract and commodity have their own unique characteristics.

What are Futures Contracts?

Futures contracts are an agreement to buy or sell a specified asset at a certain date and price. The asset can be tangible commodities such as grain, beef, corn, crude oil and metals. They can also be stocks, indices, commodities and currency pairs.

Trading futures can be a way for producers and suppliers of various commodities to try and avoid market volatility whilst investors can speculate on the price movement of the commodity in order to try and make a profit.

Standardized contracts help to ensure the ongoing stability of the futures market whereas supply and demand determine the commodity prices.

Futures give the buyer the obligation to buy the underlying market, and the seller the obligation to sell at or before the contract’s expiry.

What is the Futures Market?

A futures market is a central financial exchange for trading futures where you can buy and sell futures contracts. The New York Mercantile Exchange, the Chicago Board of Trade, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, the Chicago Climate Futures Exchange, the Kansas City Board of Trade and the Minneapolis Grain Exchange are amongst some of the more popular futures exchanges.

How does Futures Trading Work?

Futures trading works by speculating on the price of an underlying futures market. Traders will look to go long (buy) a futures contract if they believe the price will rise or short (sell) a futures contract if they believe the price will fall. The difference in price between the price at the start and expiry date of the futures contract is the profit or loss from the contract. For each futures trade, there is a winner and a loser.

Futures are traded in a different manner to the more traditional stocks and shares. Futures are trades in contracts. Each futures contract has a standard size which is set by the futures exchange that it is traded on.

As an example, the futures contract size for gold is 100 ounces. Thus, if you are buying one gold futures contract, you are in control of 100 ounces of gold. If the price of gold increased by $2 an ounce, your position will change by $200 ($2 x 100 ounces). Each futures contract and commodity have their own unique characteristics.

Why Trade Futures?

There are some advantages to trading futures, and that includes the ability to buy long and sell short when speculating on prices. You can trade futures on a wide range of markets including stock futures, index futures, commodity futures, forex futures, bond futures and more.

You can trade futures contacts with leveraged positions when speculating which means that you are able to control a larger position size than you would have been able to do without leverage. However, whilst leverage can amplify potential profits, it also increases the potential loss if the market turns against you. It is imperative that you have a clear understanding of leveraged trading and the significant risks involved before you start trading futures with leveraged positions.

Futures contracts can also be used by corporations, fund managers and investors to hedge against losses elsewhere. Some will look to offset their price risk by obtaining a futures contract on a futures exchange, hereby securing themselves of a pre-determined price for their product. They are using their futures contract to try and reduce the overall risk of their investment portfolio.

For example, if an investor owned shares in companies that are listed on the FTSE 100 and were concerned about their value falling, they could short a FTSE 100 index future in order to try and offset a proportion of the share position losses.

How to Trade Futures?

If you have taken the time to read through the above, you should hopefully have an understanding of the futures market and how to trade futures. Here is a summary of the key steps:

1. Decide if futures trading is for you

Trading futures online carries an element of risk and can take more time than other forms of investing. You will need to research futures, manage your futures contracts, follow market news and decide how to react. It is important to understand the learning process, dedication and risks that comes with trading futures online.

2. Educate yourself

Before trading futures, it is imperative that you learn as much as possible about investing and the futures market. Any mistake could prove to be costly. There is an abundance of free educational materials provided by many online brokers that can help you to improve your trading skills and knowledge.

The majority of online brokerages will also provide a free demo trading account so that you can practice trading futures online with virtual funds in order to familiarise yourself with how they work, the trading platforms and to practice your trading strategies until you feel confident enough to open a real trading account.

3. Choose a futures broker

In order to trade futures online, you will need a broker account and trading platform to execute your trade positions through to the futures market. When choosing a broker, there are a few important things to consider such as regulation, commission fees, platforms, tools, education, funding options and customer support.

4. Research futures

If you have made it this far then you may be ready to start trading futures online! The next step is to research the different assets to discover which futures you may have an interest in trading. Perhaps there is a particular industry, product or service that is already of interest to you. Many brokers will allow you to filter future contracts according to various criteria in order to narrow down your search if need be.

With various futures markets to choose from, you should try to establish which one is most-suited to your individual trading style. Some indices such as the Germany 30 for example, can experience higher volatility than others, and may be better suited to short-term day traders.

Other markets, such as gold or silver commodity futures are often preferred by traders who have lower risk appetites and enjoy markets with lower volatility.

Many traders will begin by analysing different companies and industries, studying publicly available information such as finances, earnings and reports from professional analysts. The best brokers should have this information conveniently displayed for you within their trading platform.

5. Have a futures trading plan

Some of the most important factors that can help determine the performance of your futures contracts can be the trading plan and discipline. It is very important to have a solid trading plan personalised to your own needs that includes the money management and trading strategy that you will use. Most experts and professional traders would try to not let negative emotions such as fear, anger and greed affect their trading strategy.

6. Buy and sell futures

Once you know what futures you would like to trade online, you can analyse them to help decide if and when you will buy and sell future contracts.

Going long means that you are speculating on the value of a future increasing, and going short means that you are speculating on its value decreasing.

If you think that the underlying price of a future will increase based on your own fundamental and technical analysis, then you may consider opening a long position. If instead, your analysis suggests that the underlying market price will fall, then you may want to open a short position.

Before you open your position, you should consider adding stops and limits to your trade. Stops and limits are ways in which you can manage your risk while trading futures.

A stop order will close your position automatically if the price moves to a less favourable level, while a limit order will close your position automatically if it moves to a more favourable one.

After you’ve placed your trade, you will need to monitor it to ensure that the markets are behaving in the way that you had anticipated. If they are not, then you might want to close your trade to minimise your losses. If they are, then you might want to close your trade after reaching your target price level. This will all depend on your own money management strategy and personal preferences. Most brokers will allow you to close a futures contract trade before the expiry date of the contract arrives.

Choosing a Futures Broker

There are various factors worth considering if you are looking for a broker to trade futures online with. In this section, we will cover what we consider to be some of the most important aspects that you can look out for when choosing a futures broker.


We deem the brokers regulation to be of the upmost importance. The reason being, is that a regulated broker must follow strict rules and regulations put in place in order to protect investors. They can offer some forms of protection that an unregulated brokerage firm cannot. Many experts and professionals would only ever trade with a regulated broker and they can give clients peace of mind that the broker has their best interests in mind.


Futures contracts are an agreement to buy or sell a specified asset at a certain date and price. The asset can be tangible commodities such as grain, beef, corn, crude oil and metals. They can also be stocks, indices, ETFs, commodities, currency pairs and cryptocurrencies. Thus, if you would like to trade future contracts on a particular asset class, you will need to check that it is an available option at the broker you are considering. If you want to trade CFDs, options or spread bet, you should see if this is possible through the broker you are considering.


When you trade future contracts with a broker, they are likely to charge a commission fee. It is important that you are aware of all fees involved before taking out any future contracts. Generally speaking, the lower a brokerage fees are, the more you can save on trading costs over the long term. Aside from the commission fee, there may be other fees which you need to be aware of such as accounting fees, inactivity fees and more. If you are looking to save as much as possible on your trading costs, you can take a look at our best discount brokers.


In order for clients to be able to take out future contracts, the broker provides them with a futures trading platform. There are various desktop, web and mobile trading apps available, some free and some paid. Each platform will have a choose of trading tools, features and functionalities. If you are already familiar with a specific trading platform, you may wish to check that the broker has it. Alternatively, you can opt for a popular and user-friendly futures platform such as MetaTrader or cTrader. You will find that there are lots of MetaTrader brokers which can give you convenient market access for your manual and automated trading strategies. If you don’t have the time or skills to trade and want to copy trading signals, you should look for a social trading platform.


The futures markets typically use high leverage. Leverage means that the trader does not need to put up 100% of the contract’s value amount when entering into a trade. Instead, the broker would require an initial margin amount, which consists of a fraction of the total contract value.

For example, if you had an account balance of $500 and leverage of 1:5, you would be able to take a position size of $2,500 ($500 x 5 = $2,500).

Whilst this does mean that you can control a position size larger than you would have been able to without leverage, it also means the risk is significantly greater. It is imperative that you have a clear understanding of leverage and how it works before trading with leveraged positions.


The best futures brokers should have a selection of educational resources available to help beginners improve their trading knowledge and skills. This can range from trading guides, tutorial videos, webinars, eBooks, quizzes and more. If you would like to learn more about futures trading, then you should check the broker has the relevant educational materials. If you are new to trading and need as much guidance as possible, you might want to explore our best brokers for beginners.


Whilst future trading platforms will have a range of built-in trading tools, some brokers provide traders with additional tools to help assist them with their daily trading activities. This can include economic calendars and earning reports which help clients to keep up to date with the latest market news and can be implemented as part of a fundamental analysis. Other tools can include trading calculators, trading signals, market alerts and more.


Each futures broker will have its own minimum deposit policy so check that you can meet this requirement. You may also need to provide some personal information in order to pass the brokers KYC and AML procedures. During the sign-up process it is very important to make sure that you read all of the brokers terms and conditions, only proceeding if you understand and agree with them.


Different brokers can have different account deposit and withdrawal methods. Whilst most future brokers will allow you to fund your account via wire transfer and credit/debit card, others will accept online payment methods such as Neteller, PayPal and Skrill. You may wish to check to make sure that the broker has an account funding option that is convenient for your needs. It is also important to check any broker or third-party fees that will occur when making deposits and withdrawals.


There are futures brokers all over the globe. Some may operate customer support in different time zones, via different methods and different languages. You may wish to check where the brokers’ offices are located and if they are easily reachable. Many brokers will offer online chat, telephone and email support. You can check they have a contact option that works for you.


Futures are a financial derivative in which one party agrees with another party to buy or sell an asset at a predetermined price at some point in the future. Both physical commodities and financial instruments like stocks and bonds are traded using futures contracts.

Trading Futures offer a variety of advantages for anyone looking to diversify their portfolio and capitalize on the ever-changing world economy. With futures, traders can access nearly round the clock trading opportunities, choose to increase their leverage, and access highly liquid futures markets.

Now that you have had a brief overview of what future contracts are, you may be considering opening an online trading account to trade futures online. To do so, you can simply choose a futures trading broker, follow the account opening process and you will be able to start trading futures online through one of their futures trading platforms.

However, it is important to understand the significant risks involved with trading futures, especially when using leveraged positions. Most experts would suggest trading on a demo account with virtual funds to begin with. This can be a useful way to familiarise yourself with how to trade futures and use trading platforms whilst allowing you to practice your trading strategies until you feel confident and produce consistent results. Most futures brokers provide unlimited demo accounts free of charge.

Take your time to research brokers and do your own due diligence, the above information is only for educational purposes and not advice. Please feel free to use our broker comparison tool if you need some further inspiration before you get started.

About the Author

Avatar photo

Richard Montana
Richard has many years of experience in broker research, testing, analysis and reviews. He knows what to look for through years of trading himself with different brokers and listening to the feedback of others.

Review Methodology

For all of our broker reviews, we research, validate, analyse and compare what we deem to be the most important factors to consider when choosing a broker. This includes pros, cons and an overall rating based on our findings. We aim to help you find the best broker according to your own needs. You can read more about our review process.